smigabovgrisus.gqpe: application/pdf English Pattern Of Culture. RUTH BENEDICT: CONFIGURATIONALISM AND. THE PATTERNS OF CULTURE. Sapir's idea of configurations of culture was picked up and developed by his. Patterns of Culture by RUTH BENEDICT With an Introduction by FRANZ BoAS and A New Preface by MARGARET MEAD A MENTOR BOOK Published by THE .

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Patterns of culture by Ruth Benedict, , Houghton Mifflin company edition, in English. Patterns of Culture [Ruth Benedict] on *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Unique and important Patterns of Culture is a signpost on the road. Benedict - Patterns of Culture__the Individual and the Pattern of Culture - Free download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online for free.

Pattern Of Culture

Allow this favorite library to be seen by others Keep this favorite library private. Find a copy in the library Finding libraries that hold this item Details Additional Physical Format: Online version: Benedict, Ruth, Patterns of culture. Ruth Benedict Find more information about: Ruth Benedict. Reviews User-contributed reviews Add a review and share your thoughts with other readers. Be the first. Add a review and share your thoughts with other readers.

Similar Items Related Subjects: Zuni Indians. Kwakiutl Indians. Manners and customs. Papua New Guinea -- Dobu Island.

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Zuni Volk User lists with this item 5 Keller giveaway 61 items by vmcbeth updated Linked Data More info about Linked Data. Primary Entity http: Book , schema: The science of custom -- II. The diversity of cultures -- III. The integration of culture -- IV. The Pueblos of New Mexico -- V. Dobu -- VI. Societies all have social norms that they follow; some allow more expression when dealing with death, such as mourning, while other societies are not allowed to acknowledge it.

The girls were successful in school and entered Vassar College in September where Ruth thrived in an all-female atmosphere. Nevertheless, Ruth explored her interests in college and found writing as her way of expressing herself as an "intellectual radical" as she was sometimes called by her classmates. She graduated with her sister in with a major in English Literature. Accompanied by two girls from California that she'd never met, Katherine Norton and Elizabeth Atsatt, she traveled through France , Switzerland , Italy , Germany , and England for one year, having the opportunity of various home stays throughout the trip.

First she tried paid social work for the Charity Organization Society and later she accepted a job as a teacher at the Westlake School for Girls in Los Angeles , California.

While working there she gained her interest in Asia that would later affect her choice of fieldwork as a working anthropologist. However, she was unhappy with this job as well and, after one year, left to teach English in Pasadena at the Orton School for Girls.

She had met him by chance in Buffalo , New York around That summer Ruth fell deeply in love with Stanley as he began to visit her more, and accepted his proposal for marriage. Stanley suffered an injury that made him want to spend more time away from the city, and Benedict was not happy when the couple moved to Bedford Hills far away from the city.

Career in anthropology[ edit ] Education and early career[ edit ] In her search for a career, she decided to attend some lectures at the New School for Social Research while looking into the possibility of becoming an educational philosopher. She enjoyed the class and took another anthropology course with Alexander Goldenweiser , a student of noted anthropologist Franz Boas.

With Goldenweiser as her teacher, Ruth's love for anthropology steadily grew. Sapir and Benedict shared an interest in poetry, and read and critiqued each other's work, both submitting to the same publishers and both being rejected.

They also were both interested in psychology and the relation between individual personalities and cultural patterns, and in their correspondences they frequently psychoanalyzed each other. However, Sapir showed little understanding for Benedict's private thoughts and feelings. In particular, his conservative gender ideology jarred with Benedict's struggle for emancipation. While they were very close friends for a while, it was ultimately the differences in worldview and personality that led their friendship to strand.

Benedict was a significant influence on Mead. One student who felt especially fond of Ruth Benedict was Ruth Landes.

However, the administration of Columbia was not as progressive in its attitude towards female professionals as Boas had been, and the university President Nicholas Murray Butler was eager to curb the influence of the Boasians whom he considered to be political radicals. Instead, Ralph Linton , one of Boas's former students, a World War I veteran and a fierce critic of Benedict's "Culture and Personality" approach, was named head of the department.

After Benedict died of a heart attack in , Mead kept the legacy of Benedict's work going by supervising projects that Benedict would have looked after, and editing and publishing notes from studies that Benedict had collected throughout her life.

These lectures were focused around the idea of synergy. Yet, WWII made her focus on other areas of concentration of anthropology and the lectures were never presented in their entirety. Work[ edit ] Patterns of Culture[ edit ] Benedict's Patterns of Culture was translated into fourteen languages and was published in many editions as standard reading for anthropology courses in American universities for years. Stevenson, 'ce rtainly the strongest person in Zuni, bot h ment all y and physically.

The men- women of Zu fii are not all strong, self- reliant personages. Some of t hem take this refuge to protect themselves against thei r inability to take part in men's activities. One is almost a simpleton, and one. There are obviously several reasons why a person becomes a berdache in Zuiii , but whateve r the reason. Their response is socially recognized. If they have nati ve ability. The Indian inst itution of the berd ache was most strongly developed on the pl ains.

Th e Dakot a had a sayi ng ' fine possessions like a berdache's,' and it was the epitome of praise for any woman's household possessions. A ber- dache had two strings to his bow, he was supreme in women's techniques, and he could also support his me- nage by the man's activity of hunt ing.

Therefo re no one was richer. When espe cially fine beadwork or dr essed skins we re desired for ce remonial occ asions.

It was his soc ial adequacy that was stressed above all else. As in Zuni. Soci al sco rn, however, was visited not upon the berdache but upon the man who lived with him. Hi s sexual adjustme nt was not singled out in the judg- ment that was passed upon him. I When the homo sexu al response is regard ed as a per- version , however , the invert is immedi at ely exposed to all the conflicts to which aberra nts are always exposed.

Hi s guilt , his sense of inadequ acy, his failur es, are conse- quences of the disr eput e which social tr aditi on visits upon him; and few people can achieve a sat isfactory life un- supp ort ed by the standards of the society. Th e adjustments that society demand s of them would strain any man' s vitalit y, and the consequences of this conflict we identify with thei r homosexuality.

Tr ance is a similar abnorma lity in our society. Even a very mild mystic is aberra nt in Western civilizati on. In ord er to study tr ance or catalep sy within our own soc ial group s, we have to go to the case hi stori es of the abnormal. Th er efor e the corre lation bet ween tr ance expe rience and the neur oti c and psychoti c seems perfect.

As in the case of the homosexual , however , it is a local corre lation char- acteri stic of our centu ry. Even in our own cultural back- ground othe r eras give dilTerent result s. In the Middle Ages when Ca tholicism made the ecstatic expe rience the mark of sainthood , the trance expe rience was greatly valu ed, and those to whom the respon se was congenial, instead of bein g overwhelmed by a cat astroph e as in our centu ry, were given confide nce in the pursuit of their car eer s.

It was a valid ati on of ambiti ons. Indi viduals who were suscept ible to tr ance, ther e- fore , succeeded or failed in term s of their nati ve capa c- ities, but since tr ance expe rience was highly valued, a great leader was very likely to be capable of it.

Among primitiv e peo ples, tr ance and cata lepsy have been honour ed in the extr eme. Some of the Indi an tribes of Ca lifornia accorded pr estige principally to those who passed throu gh certa in tr ance experiences. Not all of these tribe s beli eved that it was excl usively women who were so blessed, but among the Shasta this was the convent ion. They were chosen be- cause of their co nstitutional liabiJity to trance and allied manifestations.

One day the woman who was so destined, while she was about her usual work. She had hear d a voice spea king to her in tones of the greatest intensity. Turning, she had seen a man with drawn bow and arrow. He co mmanded her to sing on pain of being shot throu gh the heart by his arrow.

Her family gather ed. She was lying rigidly, hardl y br eathing. They knew that for some time she had had dreams of a special charact er which indi cated a shamanistic calling, dreams of escaping grizzly bears.

The com- munit y knew therefore what to expec t. Aft er a few hours the woman began to moan gently and to roll about upon the ground. She was supposed to be repeatin g the song which she had bee n told to sing and which durin g the tr ance had been taught her by the spirit. As she revived, her moaning became more and more clearly the spirit's song until at last she called out the name of the spirit itself , and immediat ely blood oozed from her mouth.

When the woman had come to her self after the first encounter with her spirit. For three nights she danced, holdin g her self by a rope that was swung from the ceiling. On the thi rd ni ght she had to receive in her body her power from the spirit.

She was dancing, and as she felt the approach of the moment she called out, 'He will shoot me, he will shoot me. Fro m thi s time on she had in her body a visible materialization of her spirit's power. From this time on she continued demonstrations.

She became, in other words. They were the outstanding cha ract er istic of the most respected social type, the type which funct ioned with most hon our and rewa rd in the co mmunity.

It was preci sely the cataleptic individ ual s who in thi s culture wer e singl ed out for authority and leade rship. Th e po ssible usef ulness of ' abno rmal' types in a soc ial str ucture. Th e shamans of Sibe ria do mi nate thei r com- mu ni ties. Acco rdin g to the ideas of these peop les. It is the shamanistic pract ice which co ns titutes thei r cure. Ca ta leptic seizures arc regarded as an esse n- tial part of any shamanistic per formance. A good descr iption of the neur ot ic co ndition of the shaman and the atte ntion given him by hi s society is an old one by Canon Ca llaway, reco rded in the words of an old Zulu of South Afri ca : Th e condition of a man who is about to become a diviner is th is : at first he is appa rent ly robu st, but in the process of time he begins to be delica te.

He habitu all y avoids certa in kinds of food, choosing wha t he likes. And he tel ls them th at he h;IS drea mt that he was carried away by a river. He dreams of many things, and his body is muddied [as a river a nd he become s a house of dreams.

He dreams consta nt ly of many th ings. On waking one pa rt of my hody felt differe nt from other parts : it was no longer alike all over. Th e diviners do not at once sec th at he is abou t to have a soft head that is, the sensitivity associa ted wit h shaman- ism]. It is difficult for t hem la see the t r uth ; t hey con tin u- ally t alk no nsense and mak e fal se stateme nts. AI lengt h all t he man 's prop erty is expend ed.

At length a div iner comes and says t hat all the ot hers are wrong. He says. Th er e is not hing else. Th ey mo ve in him, be ing divided into two parti es: so me say, "N o. If you bar the way aga inst the spirits. For he will no t be a divi ner; neither will he ever be a man aga in.

He is confine d to his house. This continues t ill his hair fall s off. And his body is dry and scurfy: he does not like to ano int himself. He shows that he is about to be a di viner by yawni ng agai n and aga in, and by sneezing cont inua lly. It is appa re nt also fr om his be ing very fond of snuff: not allowing any long ti me to pass wit ho ut tak ing some.

Pattern Of Culture

And peop le beg in to sec that he has had wh at is good given to him. Aft er t hat he is ill : he has co nvulsion s. He hab ituall y sheds tea rs. All t he peopl e of the village ar c t roub led by wan t of sleep; for a man who is becomin g a diviner C;. Perhaps he sings till mornin g.

In thi s st ate of things they da ily expe ct his death ; he is now but skin and bones, and th ey think th at tomorr ow's sun will not leave him alive.

At thi s time many catt le are eaten , for the peo ple encour age hi s becomin g a diviner. At length in a drea m] an anci ent ancestral spirit is pointed out to him.

Thi s spir it says to him , ' Go to So-and- so and he will churn for you an emetic [the medi cine the drinking of whi ch is a part of sha ma nist ic init iat ion] th at you may be a diviner altoget her.

Ther eafter for life, when he is possessed by his spirits, he foret eUs events and finds lost art icles.

It is clear that cultur e may value and make soc ially availabl e even highl y unstabl e hum an types. If it chooses to tre at their peculiarities as the most valued variants of human behaviour , the indi vidual s in question will rise to the occasion and perform their soc ial roles without refer- ence to our usual ideas of the types who ca n make social adjustm ent s and those who ca nnot.

Th ose who function inad equ at ely in any soc iety ar e not those with certa in fixed ' abnorma l' tr ait s, but may well be those whose responses have received no suppon in the inst itutions of their cul- tur e. Th e weakness of these abe t-rants is in great measure illusory. It springs, not from the [act that they are lacking in necessary vigour, but that they are individu als whose native responses are not reaffirmed by society.

Th ey are, as Sapir phrases it, ' alienated from an impo ssible world. Cerva ntes turn ed upon a tr adi tion still honour ed in the abstract the limeli ght of a changed set of pr actic al standards, and his poo r old man, the orthodox upholder of the romanti c chivalr y of another generation, became a simpleton. He loved his Dulcinea in the best t rad itional manner of chivalry. These contrasting worlds which, in the primi tive cul- tur es we have co nside red.

Th e major issue is the sa me in eithe r case, but the impo rtance of under st and ing the phe- nomenon is far grea ter in the modern world where we ca nnot esca pe if we would from the succes sion of configura tions in ti me.For our purposes it is sufficient to notice those regions where organized resort to mutual slaughter never occurs between social groups.

Some primitive tribes may have held relatively closer to primordial forms of behaviour than civilized man, but this can only be relative and our guesses are as likely to be wrong as right. It is only the inevitabl e cultur al lag that makes us insist that the old must be discover ed again in the new, that there is no solution but to find the old cer tainty and stabil- ity in the new plasticit y. The exigencies of the situation are misleading only when this necessity is read off as implying that he is submerged in an overpowering ocean.

Finally, she discusses the Kwakiutl, stating they are megalomaniacal in nature, discussing their competitive potlatch to demonstrate their need to dominate others.

But each language must make its selection and abide by it on pain of not being intelligible at all. These medicine men are summoned in case of illness.

The new allegiance made him thoroughly at home in still another household.