HISTORY OF AMERICAN LITERATURE PDF

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1 The First Americans: American Literature During the Colonial In this history of American literature, I have tried to be responsive to the immense changes that. Writing the Nation: A Concise Introduction to American Literature— to Present is licensed .. and second half of the literary history of the United States. A STUDENT'S HISTORY OF. AMERICAN LITERATURE. CHAPTER I. EARLY COLONIAL LITERATURE. I. The English in Virginia. II, Pilgrims and.


History Of American Literature Pdf

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contributions to American and world literature. The Dutch culture in colonial New York was of particular interest to Irving. He published a mockserious history of. In this history of American literature, I have tried to be responsive to the ference – has been to 'uninvent' the reading of American literature that sees America. attention to important historical and cultural influences on these authors, defines a Tracking literary movements can help you see how American literature has.

During the Enlightenment, few Americans were so infatuated with reason that they looked to it as a savior Thomas Paine was rebuked by Franklin, in fact, for his strident advocacy of reason over all religious thought, warning him that it would lead to his rejection by his countrymen — words which proved prophetic.

Americans, almost by necessity, rather than seeking consistent and systematic philosophy for life, developed an ability to function with contradiction, philosophical dissonance and rapid social evolution in a sense becoming the first practicing moderns. A positive and pragmatic attitude towards change with rebellion as a virtue. Throwing off the constraints of society, tradition, the law or of the dominant social order characterized many of those participating in voluntary immigration — particularly those migrating for the purposes of religious freedom — and found ready welcome among forced migrants as well.

Birkle, Carmen and Johanna Heil eds. Heidelberg: Winter, This view was published widely by only one author of note — Thomas Paine — and it is noteworthy that it was his conflating of rebellion with the overthrow of the divine that led to his obscurity and near-banishment from the American public after the founding of the nation was complete.

The American landscape, in all its subtle mundaneness and grand glory stimulated response among even the earliest of American writers Captain John Smith, in particular. Among many European immigrants, the vastness of the landscape and the diversity of the peoples created a sense of an inexhaustible wealth of nature on the continent therefore free for squandering , but among all including the native peoples there is evidence of an awareness 4 Jefferson cut and pasted together two such Gospels, the second of which is the best preserved: 84 pages, completed in , containing selections Jefferson found reasonable, as identified in Latin, Greek, English, and French versions of the Gospels.

Edwards, Owen.

American Literature Books

January Notebooks and Unpublished Prose Manuscripts. Edward F. Grier, ed. Wenger 5 of greatness and variety worthy of celebration.

A History of American Literature

Authors of literary note who evidenced this were Irving, Cooper, Bryant, Thoreau, and Hawthorne, to name earlier examples. Meanwhile, native Americans, many forced immigrants from the Carribean and Africa, and many voluntary immigrants came from traditions which literally did worship the natural world, a fact that did not go without influence upon the dominant cultures.

As time passed, this genuine nature worship did begin to be evident among writers whose religious and cultural heritage forbade such an approach to the natural world Emerson and Thoreau laid the ground work for this, and Whitman and Dickinson most obviously proclaimed it, but William Cullen Bryant also evidences the shift of veneration from Creator to creature.

Furthermore, the emphasis upon the uniqueness of the individual and the expression of that uniqueness in forms not bound by earlier traditions flowed naturally from the protestant roots of the majority of the northern-European immigrants to the early colonies. The enmity between reason and intuition found in most European romanticism is not as obvious in American romantic writings. Edgar Allan Poe is perhaps the best example of this, with his exploration of literary criticism and foundational work in psychoanalytic writing.

Early on this tradition came into contact with the significantly differing traditions of the Native American and African-American approach to the natural world. Consequently, one finds even in modern American literature an approach to the natural world including the inner world of the human psyche which is fundamentally religious but not contradictory or reactionary to the scientism and pragmatism so prevalent throughout the last three centuries. In other words, Americans tend to be quite religious in their approach to the natural world, even when such an approach to nature has been thoroughly severed from or never connected to the Protestant roots of much of American romanticism.

That American romanticism flows more from earlier philosophical and social developments and fundamental religious beliefs and that it was only contributed to by European romanticism not defined by it largely explains the enduring and often contradictory nature of American romantics such as Poe, Dickinson, Hemingway or, in recent decades such as Kingsolver.

Wenger 6 6. A poignant awareness of the condition of nature: mainly, that the natural world — including man — is not as it ought to be: Something is amiss in Eden.

This characteristic arises largely from the Judeo-Christian heritage of Europe, so vigorously held by many of the early religious immigrants , but was augmented by the psychological consequences of the cataclysmic social change experienced by Native and African-America peoples, so that by the time predominantly English-European cultural influences were fully transplanted to American soil in the early 17th century there was a nearly universal awareness in the Americas that the cosmos is deeply flawed.

Largely due to this foundational belief in the flawed nature of all creation, American society weathered the shock of what many recognize as the first modern war and gross exhibition of inhumanity of man against man without full descent into cynicism, totalitarianism, or nihilism which so characterized European philosophers of the late 19th century and the European cultures and many of the more recently independent peoples of European colonialism as a whole in the 20th century.

Only after World War II, and only for a relatively brief period as compared to European literature, for example did American authors such as Hemingway begin evidencing a cynicism and skepticism quite contrary to the optimism of earlier authors — optimism largely grounded in religious convictions and shared experience left mostly intact by the ravages of world wars which did not reach the American continent with invading armies or the depravation of blockade.

That many of these more cynical, modern authors such as Saul Bellow in his early works were largely rejected by the general American public is not surprising. An almost religious emphasis upon the individual as important and necessary for the function of society.

This characteristic is due in part to the religious beliefs of the Protestant Reformation, but also originates in the simple realities of the American experience.

America began as a colony and then became a colonizing nation in an age of great commercial and technological development where nearly all social enterprise had to be conducted by immigrants — whether voluntary or forced — for the continent particularly the north-eastern portion of it was mostly devoid of large numbers of native peoples and mineral resources like those of Africa, South America or Asia.

The Native Americans which had survived the ravages of disease brought by early European explorers to the continent either successfully resisted subjugation or were not exploited as labor for the economic enterprises of the growing colonial Wenger 7 populations a peculiarity of colonialism shared by only a few nations: Australia, Canada and New Zealand, to name the most notable.

Thus, American traditions originated a growing emphasis upon the value and uniqueness of the individual and the value of attending to and nurturing the unique expression of the individual with some individuals always being dismissed as less valuable than others, but not to the extent that they are silenced — only less attended to.

This characteristic was cradled in the womb of early America, and nurtured to its earliest maturity in literature in the works of Walt Whitman, transplanted to Europe and reintroduced to America from Europe, to flourish and permeate American culture. Occasional, but rare, expressions of nearly pure cynicism regarding the individual are found in American literature, but more often one finds, particularly in modern times, merely a continuing portrayal of the flawed condition of unique and incalculably valuable individuals in a less than perfect cosmos.

Eli Paul. Autobiography of Red Cloud: war leader of the Oglalas. Bellow, Saul, and Janis Freedman Bellow. Collected stories. New York: Viking. Bishop, Elizabeth. The complete poems, New York: Farrar Straus Giroux. Bryant, William Cullen, and Parke Godwin.

The poetical works of William Cullen Bryant. Cather, Willa. Stories, poems, and other writings. New York, N. Chopin, Kate. Complete novels and stories. New York: Library of America. The writings of James Fenimore Cooper. Dickinson, Emily, Thomas H. Johnson editor.

The Complete Poems of Emily Dickinson. New York: Little Brown and Company.

Edwards, Jonathan, and Perry Miller. The works of Jonathan Edwards. New Haven: Yale University Press. Edwards, Own. Accessed Oct. Eliot, T. The complete poems and plays, San Diego: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. Equiano, Olaudah, and Robert J. The interesting narrative of the life of Olaudah Equiano. Boston: Bedford Books of St. Martin's Press. Willcox, and Barbara Oberg.

The papers of Benjamin Franklin. A poignant awareness of the condition of nature: mainly, that the natural world — including man — is not as it ought to be: Something is amiss in Eden.

This characteristic arises largely from the Judeo-Christian heritage of Europe, so vigorously held by many of the early religious immigrants , but was augmented by the psychological consequences of the cataclysmic social change experienced by Native and African-America peoples, so that by the time predominantly English-European cultural influences were fully transplanted to American soil in the early 17th century there was a nearly universal awareness in the Americas that the cosmos is deeply flawed.

Largely due to this foundational belief in the flawed nature of all creation, American society weathered the shock of what many recognize as the first modern war and gross exhibition of inhumanity of man against man without full descent into cynicism, totalitarianism, or nihilism which so characterized European philosophers of the late 19th century and the European cultures and many of the more recently independent peoples of European colonialism as a whole in the 20th century.

Only after World War II, and only for a relatively brief period as compared to European literature, for example did American authors such as Hemingway begin evidencing a cynicism and skepticism quite contrary to the optimism of earlier authors — optimism largely grounded in religious convictions and shared experience left mostly intact by the ravages of world wars which did not reach the American continent with invading armies or the depravation of blockade.

That many of these more cynical, modern authors such as Saul Bellow in his early works were largely rejected by the general American public is not surprising. An almost religious emphasis upon the individual as important and necessary for the function of society. This characteristic is due in part to the religious beliefs of the Protestant Reformation, but also originates in the simple realities of the American experience.

America began as a colony and then became a colonizing nation in an age of great commercial and technological development where nearly all social enterprise had to be conducted by immigrants — whether voluntary or forced — for the continent particularly the north-eastern portion of it was mostly devoid of large numbers of native peoples and mineral resources like those of Africa, South America or Asia.

The Native Americans which had survived the ravages of disease brought by early European explorers to the continent either successfully resisted subjugation or were not exploited as labor for the economic enterprises of the growing colonial Wenger 7 populations a peculiarity of colonialism shared by only a few nations: Australia, Canada and New Zealand, to name the most notable.

Thus, American traditions originated a growing emphasis upon the value and uniqueness of the individual and the value of attending to and nurturing the unique expression of the individual with some individuals always being dismissed as less valuable than others, but not to the extent that they are silenced — only less attended to.

This characteristic was cradled in the womb of early America, and nurtured to its earliest maturity in literature in the works of Walt Whitman, transplanted to Europe and reintroduced to America from Europe, to flourish and permeate American culture. Occasional, but rare, expressions of nearly pure cynicism regarding the individual are found in American literature, but more often one finds, particularly in modern times, merely a continuing portrayal of the flawed condition of unique and incalculably valuable individuals in a less than perfect cosmos.

Eli Paul. Autobiography of Red Cloud: war leader of the Oglalas.

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Bellow, Saul, and Janis Freedman Bellow. Collected stories. New York: Viking. Bishop, Elizabeth. The complete poems, New York: Farrar Straus Giroux.

Bryant, William Cullen, and Parke Godwin. The poetical works of William Cullen Bryant. Cather, Willa. Stories, poems, and other writings. New York, N. Chopin, Kate.

Complete novels and stories. New York: Library of America. The writings of James Fenimore Cooper. Dickinson, Emily, Thomas H. Johnson editor. The Complete Poems of Emily Dickinson. New York: Little Brown and Company. Edwards, Jonathan, and Perry Miller. The works of Jonathan Edwards. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Edwards, Own. Accessed Oct. Eliot, T. The complete poems and plays, San Diego: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.

Equiano, Olaudah, and Robert J. The interesting narrative of the life of Olaudah Equiano. Boston: Bedford Books of St. Martin's Press. Willcox, and Barbara Oberg. The papers of Benjamin Franklin.

The poetry of Robert Frost. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Wenger 9 Hartwig, Marcel.

Hemingway, Ernest. The complete short stories of Ernest Hemingway: the Finca Vigi'a edition.

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Kincaid, Jamaica, and Ian Frazier. Talk stories. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. Kingsolver, Barbara. The Poisonwood Bible: a novel. New York: HarperFlamingo.

Lahiri, Jhumpa. The collected works of Langston Hughes. Columbia: University of Missouri Press. Irving, Washington, and Henry A. The complete works of Washington Irving. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press. James, Henry, and Percy Lubbock. The novels and tales of Henry James. New York: C. Scribner's sons.

Narratives of the Indian wars, Scribner's Sons. Mather, Cotton. Psalterium Americanum. The Book of Psalms.Goodwin also revised Felton's edition of the Panegyricus of Isocrates , and edited The Clouds and the collected translation of Plutarch's Morals, by several hands Then all three modes continued together, and were compounded.

Woolsey and others among them, Francis Lieber addressed the convention in defence of liberal studies.

Blumgarten Yehoush. Establishment of Great Publishing Houses.

Stories, poems, and other writings. As time passed, this genuine nature worship did begin to be evident among writers whose religious and cultural heritage forbade such an approach to the natural world Emerson and Thoreau laid the ground work for this, and Whitman and Dickinson most obviously proclaimed it, but William Cullen Bryant also evidences the shift of veneration from Creator to creature.